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Research that impacts and guides EMMA's work 

From The Standards (NDLETPS) to the National Dual Language Certificate, everything developed by Educators for a Multilingual Multicultural America (EMMA) is based on research.  On this page our partners will find research resources including annotated bibliographies, a list of research studies, articles and other pubs that have been used to develop and guide EMMA's work.

New White Paper, available for download! 
Cultivating and Expanding the Bilingual Educator Workforce
in Rhode Island (©EMMA2024)


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Research that defines EMMA's Professional Learning Parameters

Mainstream Professional Learning: Change teacher practices and improve student outcomes

Desimone, Laura M. (2009) - Improving Impact Studies of Teachers’ Professional Development: Toward Better Conceptualizations and Measures

  • Conceptual framework-Critical features of PD

  • Content focus; active learning; coherence; duration; collective participation.

Johnson, Carla C. & Fargo, Jamison D. (2014) - A Study of the Impact of Transformative Professional Development on Hispanic Student Performance on State Mandated Assessments of Science in Elementary School

  • Transformative professional development

  • Culturally relevant pedagogy; effective teaching strategies; community building; relationship building; supportive cultures for learning [Built on research pillars of PD (Desimone): content focus; active learning; coherence; duration; collective participation]

Darling Hammond, Linda et al (2017) - Effective Teacher Professional Development (Learning Policy Institute) 

  • Content focused; Active (adult) learning; Collaboration; Job embedded contexts; Use of models and modeling; Coaching; Feedback and reflection; Sustained duration

Lotan, Rachel A., Burns, Dion (2019) - The Instructional Leadership Corps: Teachers Leading Sustainable Professional Learning in Their Communities

  • Teachers teaching teachers

  • Instructional shifts (Common Core)

  • Iterative process

  • Multiple PD workshops

  • Teacher designed changes in classroom practice; opportunities to reconvene; reflect; refine efforts.

  • Provide support and modeling; analyze real world results from new practices; student work samples; refine approaches.

Powell, Cathy G., Bodur, Yasar (2019) - Teachers’ perceptions of an online professional development experience: Implications for a design and implementation framework

  • Online Teacher PD (OTPD)

  • Addressing teachers PL needs to solve actual problems to promote ownership; relevancy; usefulness.

  • Interaction and collaboration.

  • Learning communities.

  • Multiple forms of interaction.

  • Feedback and synchronous discussions;

  • Authentic tasks and activities reflecting their context;

  • Reflection.

Critical Professional Learning (Organizational strategies) aimed at disrupting inequality; liberatory transformation
Kohli, Rita et al, (2015) - Critical Professional Development: Centering the Social Justice Needs of Teachers

  • Process of reflection (praxis); Needs based professional learning; Provocative cooperative dialogue; Unity among the stakeholders (Collaboration); Shared leadership among stakeholders. 

Alfaro, Cristina and Hernandez, Ana M, (2016) - Ideology, pedagogy, access and equity (IPAE): A critical examination for dual language educators

  • IPAE: Ideological clarity; pedagogical clarity; access for all; equitable spaces.

Stacy (2020) 

  • Immersive PD conducted in Spanish (honoring their linguistic capital); center teachers sociocultural realities and community cultural wealth; centering issues of race, language, and power.

  • General schedule: circulo, language instruction, modeling of critical pedagogy, and application.

  • Circulo: a space for learning about each other; to see each other; acknowledge their humanity.  

Hernandez, Ana M. (2022) - Enacting Asset-Based Approaches for Critically Conscious Dual Language Teachers: The Administrator's Role in a Professional Learning Community

  • Learning about students’ assets framework (Liderazgo: valuing students’ cultural and linguistic assets; building on previous knowledge; caring learning environment; exercising bilingual leadership.

  • PL Learning cycle: Voices from the field (pre-post surveys); examination of teachers’ critical consciousness; collaboration; advocacy & relationships; active learning & planning; teacher action research; reflection and next steps.

Critical Professional Learning (Micro level strategies)
Palmer, Deborah, Cervantes-Soon, Claudia , Dorner, Lisa and Heiman, Daniel (2019) - Bilingualism, Biliteracy, Biculturalism, and Critical Consciousness for All: Proposing a Fourth Fundamental Goal for Two-Way Dual Language Education

  • 4 elements of CC: Interrogating power (equity audits); Critical listening; Historicizing schools; Embracing discomfort.

Stacy (2020) 

  • Community circles; literature circles; humanizing practices (authentic dialogue, hands on experiences, reflection). 

  • Circulo rules: respeta la pieza de hablar; habla desde el corazon; escucha desde el corazon; habla con respeto; diga lo suficiente; honra la privacidad; se lo major que puede ser.

Hernandez (2022)

  • Archeology of self; Wordle activity;

Hesse (2023)

  • Testimonios; critical conversation;

Valdez (2023). 

  • PLC critical policy analysis process: identify/notice; dialogue; envision; act and reflect.

Research Foundation of the National Dual Language Education Teacher Preparation Standards

Overview & Rationale for NDLETPS - References

Standard OneBilingualism and Biliteracy

Standard TwoSociocultural Competence

Standard ThreeDual Language Instructional Practices and Pedagogy

Standard FourAuthentic Assessment in Dual Language

Standard FiveProfessionalism, Advocacy, and Agency

Standard SixProgram Design and Curricular Leadership

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